This gemstone directory is based on information from Gemological institute of America. GIA is considered the world authority on gemstone and diamond research, grading and education.

GemstoneCharacteristicsMohs Hardness
Alexandrite Bluish green in daylight, purplish red under incandescent light; hard and durable 8.5
Amber Yellow, orange or golden brown; a fossilized resin, inclusions sometimes preserve ancient life 2.5
Amethyst Purple to pastel gems from African and South American mines. Browse amethyst jewelry > 7
Ammolite Each gemstone displays captivating, iridescent rainbow colors. Browse ammolite jewelry > 3.5-8
Aquamarine Clear blue to greenish-blue variety of the mineral beryl. Browse aquamarine jewelry > 8
Citrine Popular yellow variety of quartz that ranges from yellow to brown-orange color. Browse citrine jewelry > 7
Diamond Valued for their colorless purity, but found in all rainbow colors; most diamonds are over a billion years old 10
Emerald Blue green to deep green variety of beryl, sourced from Africa, South America and Asia. Browse emerald jewelry > 8
Garnet Found in all the colors of the rainbow, known for red, orange and green; colors vary in their rarity. Browse garnet jewelry > 7.5
Iolite Blue to violet hue, that can also display a pale yellow or colorless hue when viewed from certain directions 7.5
Jade Green jade dates to the pre-historic era and is actually two separate gems: nephrite and jadeite 6-7
Lapis Lazuli Royal blue with golden streaks of pyrite; this rock is made of several minerals: lazurite, calcite and pyrite 5.5
Moonstone A colorless, semi-transparent appearance with a light blue or silver sheen known as adularescence 6.5
Opal Opal’s light diffraction results in a play of many colors; the color range and pattern help determine its value. Browse opal jewelry > 6.5
Pearl Pearls take years to form and are produced in the bodies of marine and freshwater mollusks 3
Peridot Yellow-green gemstone found in volcanic and mountain rock and meterorites. Browse peridot jewelry > 7
Ruby Deep red color; known as the "king of precious stones." Browse ruby jewelry > 9
Sapphire Found in a variety of colors including yellow, green, orange, pink and purple; prized for their deep blue saturated hue. Browse sapphire jewelry > 9
Spinel Spinel, often sourced in red and blue, is sometimes confused with ruby. Browse spinel jewelry > 8
Tanzanite Blue-to-violet or purple hues; recently discovered in Tanzania in 1967. Browse tanzanite jewelry > 7
Topaz Wide color range of brown, blue, green, yellow, orange, red, pink and purple. Browse topaz jewelry > 8
Tourmaline One of the widest color ranges of any gem; prized for intense violet blue gems of Paraíba, Brazil. Browse tourmaline jewelry > 7.5
Turquoise Opaque blue to green; among the world's oldest found jewelry of ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesoamerica and China 6
Zircon Blue, yellow, green, red, brown and colorless hues; known for bright and lustrous light reflection; not to be confused with cubic zirconia 7.5

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