A wide variety of pearl styles, colors and shapes exists, depending on where the pearl is sourced. Pearls are either sourced in freshwater – rivers, ponds, lakes – or the ocean’s saltwater.


Freshwater

Source: China, Japan, United States
Freshwater cultured pearls are easily cultivated from freshwater mussels rather than saltwater oysters. Freshwater culture pearls are produced in great abundance and are generally the most moderately priced of all cultured pearl varieties. Their unique shapes and pastel colors make them perfect gems for those on a budget.

Akoya

Source: China, Japan

Akoya pearls are the classic cultured pearls of Japan. They are the most lustrous of all pearls found anywhere in the world. In recent years, China has been successful in producing Akoya pearls within their own oceans but without the brilliant lustre of high-quality Japanese Akoya cultured pearls. They are known for their pure white or cream color, some with yellow, pink or blue hues. 

Mabe & Keshi Pearls

Source: Japan, Australia, French Polynesia, Indonesia, and the Philippines
Two types of pearls that don't develop into full spherical pearls are the Mabe and Keshi cultured pearls. Mabe are hemispherical pearls grown against the inside shell of an oyster rather than within the oyster's body. They are generally used in ring, earring and pendant settings which cover their flat backs or reverse side. Keshi cultured pearls are formed by accident entirely of nacre, with no “nucleus.” Their unusual shapes often lend them to clusters for bracelets or layered pearl necklaces.

South Sea

Source: Australia, French Polynesia, Indonesia, Mynamar
South Sea cultured pearls are grown in large tropical or semi-tropical saltwater oysters. They are the largest -- ranging in size from 10mm to 20mm -- and command premium prices because of their relative rarity. The most common colors are white, silver and gold.

Tahitian

Source: French Polynesia
The Black Tahitian pearl, found in the saltwater of French Polynesia, are extremely rare because only one out of 10,000 oysters contains a pearl. The oysters that create black Tahitian pearls, the Black Lipped oyster, once faced extinction and are now raised in the protected waters of pearl farms. Black Tahitian pearls range in size from 8mm to 25mm in diameter; those 12mm in diameter or larger are considered rare. Most Black Tahitian pearls are not black, but silver, gray, bronze, green with pink tones, and iridescent peacock.
Every woman should have pearl jewelry among her jewelry collection. Pearl quality is dependent on its source, how it was formed and other quality factors. When shopping for pearl jewelry, your search should lead you to a professional jeweler near you, like a member of Jewelers of America, who has the expertise to make sure you get the best quality pearl jewelry for your budget. Our guide gives you pearl information to help start your search.

Pearl Jewelry: Real Versus Fake

Real pearls are examples of nature’s beautiful magic. They are formed when a mollusk (oyster, clam, mussel) has an irritant enter its shell; in defense, the mollusk produces layers of fluid (known as nacre, pronounced NAY-kur) around the irritant. The process takes between 5-10 years, and they result is the beautiful luminous beads we cherish as pearls.

Let’s review the three types of pearls you may consider when shopping for pearl jewelry: natural, cultured and imitation.

Natural Pearls

Natural pearls, those that form organically in nature, are extremely rare -- very few are on the market today. The best source for natural pearls was the Persian Gulf, but when oil was discovered around the 1930s the Gulf waters could no longer produce pearls. Today, traditional fishing for natural pearls is still practiced in India -- but the pearls harvested are often small and expensive.

Cultured Pearls

Cultured pearls make up the majority of pearls on the market today. The “culturing” process dates back to the late 19th century, cultured pearls are formed in the same way as natural pearls, and are considered real pearls. In cultured pearls, an irritant is surgically placed into the mollusk and protected in "pearl farms" while the pearl develops. While man can start the pearl process, it is still up to nature to determine the quality of the final pearl. Of the pearls created after a five-to-ten year farming cycle, only 5% are of the high quality required for fine jewelry, according to the Cultured Pearl Association of America.

Imitation Pearls

Imitation pearls are the third type and have no connection to the natural pearl making process. They are made from glass beads that are dipped into a solution made from fish scales. While most have a high luster, it may eventually fade.

How to Tell Real Pearls from Imitation

Professional jewelers can spot an imitation pearl from cultured pearls, and will not sell you imitation marked as real.

One way you can test a pearl as imitation is to rub it against another pearl; imitation pearls glide across each other but cultured pearls feel gritty because of the layers of nacre.

Many cultured pearls undergo treatments to enhance their luster or alter their color. This does not make them any less real. A professional jeweler is trained to understand and explain these treatments, especially because they can affect the pearl jewelry's value. Trust your pearl jewelry purchase with a jewelry store known for its educated staff and ethical standards, like jewelers who are members of Jewelers of America.

Pearl Quality Factors

Pearls are classified by origin, then graded by size, shape, nacre thickness, color, luster, surface clarity and how they match. Here’s a quick summary of pearl quality factors to get started:

Lustre

The combination of surface brilliance and a deep-seated glow, the luster of a good-quality cultured pearl should be bright, not dull. Your reflection should be seen clearly on the surface of a cultured pearl. Any pearl that looks too chalky or dull indicates low quality.

Shape

Since cultured pearls are grown by oysters and subject to the whims of Mother Nature, it is very rare to find a perfectly round cultured pearl – and these are considered most valuable. While many people prefer the perfect spheres of classic pearl jewelry, baroque pearls -- those that have an irregular shape -- are now commonly seen in fine jewelry. Freshwater pearls, from freshwater sources like lakes and rivers, are most often baroque.

Size

Measured by their diameter in millimeters, the average cultured pearls sold today are between 7 and 7 1/2 millimeters. Generally, the larger the pearl, the more valuable it will be.

Surface

Cleanliness of the cultured pearl surface refers to the absence of disfiguring spots, bumps or cracks. A cultured pearl with a clean surface will have a higher value than a spotted, bumpy or cracked one.

Color

Rose Silver/White Cream Gold Blue/Gray cultured pearls occur in colors from rosé to black. While color is a matter of preference, rosé or silver/white pearls tend to look best on fair skin tones, while cream and gold-tone cultured pearls are flattering to darker complexions.

Quality Pearl Strands

  • Pearls should not bunch or twist
  • Knots should be shaped uniformly and pushed snugly against both sides of every pearl
  • Silk cord should match the pearl color as closely as possible


How to Clean & Store Pearls

  • Apply cosmetics, hair sprays and perfume before putting on any pearl jewelry. When you remove the jewelry, wipe it carefully with a soft cloth to remove any traces of these substances.
  • You can also wash your pearl jewelry with mild soap and water. Do not clean cultured pearls with any chemicals, abrasives or solvents. These substances can damage your pearls.
  • Always lay cultured pearl strands flat to dry.  Hanging a strand may stretch the threads.
  • Do not toss your cultured pearl jewelry carelessly into a purse, bag or jewel box. A pearl's surface is soft and can be scratched by hard metal edges or by the harder gemstones of other jewelry pieces.
  • Place cultured pearls in a chamois bag or wrap them in tissue when putting them away.
  • Cosmetics, perspiration, oils and ordinary wear weaken and stretch the threads on which the pearls are strung. Bring your pearls back to your jeweler for restringing once a year. Make certain the pearls are strung with a knot between each pearl. This will prevent loss of pearls if the string should break.


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